Ayurveda texts and modern research back the following facts:
Small Caltrops (Gokshura) is beneficial in erectile dysfunction. Protodioscin, a precursor of testosterone found in Small Caltrops, is converted to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the body, which improves flow-mediated dilation of the penile arteries. This results in the relaxation of vascular smooth muscles, which enhances erection.
Hygrophilia (Kokilaksha) releases nitric oxide (NO) from endothelium and nitrergic nerve endings of the penis, relaxing the cavernosal (a sponge-like area around the penis that has most of the blood during erection) muscles and increasing penile blood flow. This is helpful in correcting erectile dysfunction.
Almond (Vatada) is an aphrodisiac. It significantly increases sperm motility and sperm count without producing any spermatotoxic effects.